ADHD, cannabis and cannabinoids

Scientific References  ... in evolution publications cannabis

cannabis classification dangerosité

Scientific References

            - Cannabis effective in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

                                - Characteristics Oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol improved refractory gilles de la tourette syndrome in an adolescent by increasing intracortical inhibition: a case report. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;30(2):190-2.

"German scientists from the universities of Goettingen, Hamburg and Dresden reported of the treatment of a 15-year-old boy with treatment refractory Tourette Syndrome (TS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) leading to severe physical and psychosocial impairment. Administration of THC resulted in a considerable improvement of tics without adverse effects, allowing parallel stimulant treatment of comorbid ADHD. Along with THC treatment, intracortical inhibition, that is inhibition of signal transmission between nerve cells in the cortex of the brain, was increased."

        - Co-occurence of cannabis use and 

                                - A placebo-controlled trial of atomoxetine in marijuana-dependent individuals with adhd

"At the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, USA, 38 patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis dependence were treated either with atomoxetine or placebo for 12 weeks. Treated patients had some improvement in a scale on clinical gobal impression. There were however no effects on self-rated ADHD symptoms by patients and cannabis use."(Source Bulletin IACM / McRae-Clark AL, et al. Am J Addict 2010;19(6):481-9.)

                                - Characteristics and problems of 600 adolescent cannabis abusers in outpatient treatment, Tims FM, Dennis ML, Hamilton N, J Buchan B, Diamond G, Funk R, Brantley LB, Addiction. 2002 Dec;97 Suppl 1:46-57.

"The co-occurrence of conduct disorder and ADHD was found in 30% of the sample"

            - ADHD, genetic and CB1 implication :

                                - Association of the Cannabinoid Receptor Gene (CNR1) with ADHD and post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD, Lu and al., AM J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet, 2008 Dec 5;147B(8):1488-94

"These observations (...) suggest that the CNR1 (cannabinoid receptor gene) gene may be a risk factor for ADHD and possibly PTSD, and that this gene warrants further investigation for a role in neuropsychiatric disorders"

Attention, Cannabis and Driving Performances  french:

                                - Cannabis Improves Symptoms of ADHD, P. Strohbeck-Kuehner and al., Cannabinoids 2008;3(1):1-3

"the effects of cannabinoids in [ADHD] patients may be different from those in healthy users suggesting an involvement of the central cannabinoid receptor systems in the pathology of the [ADHD] disorder"


        - Mental Health :

                                - Different psychological effects of cannabis use in adolescences at genetic risk for schizophrenia and with ADHD

"...the cannabis users in the ADHD group had similar, or possibly lower, mental health scores than non-users."

        - Depression :

Treating Depression with cannabinoids, K. Blass, Cannabinoids 2008;3(2):8-10

        - Anxiety :

                                - Action of Relief Oriented Use of Marijuana by Teens, Bottorff JL and al., Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 2009, 4:7

                                - Action of Cannabidiol CBD on the anxiety and other effects produced by THC in normal subjects, Zuardi and al., Psychopharmacology, 1982;76(3):245-250.

Scientific Publications Related to Dopamine and other neurotransmitters

                               - D2, but not D1, Dopamine Receptor Agonists Potentiate Cannabinoid-Induced Sedation in Nonhuman Primates

"... The results may reflects an important link between dopamine and cannabinoid system in primate brain, of relevance to the pathophysiology of dopamine-related neuropsychiatric diseases"

                               - Cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated modulation of evoked dopamine release and of adrenylyl cyclase activity in the human neocortex

"... The knowledge of the modulatory effects of CB1 receptor agonists and competitive antagonists/inverse agonists on dopaminergic neurotransmission may help to detect targets for the treatment of cognitive or movement disorders."

                               - Endocannabinoid Signaling in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons: More Than Physiology?, Melis et. al., Current Pharmacology, Vol 5 N°4 Dec 2007 268-277

"The modulation of the endocannabinoid system by pharmacological agents is a valuable target in protection of dopamine neurons against finctional abnormalities as well as against neurodegenaration."

                               - Coexpression of the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 (CB1) with Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors in Distinct Neuronal Subpopulations of the Adult Mouse Forebrain, Hermann H. et. al., Neuroscience Vol 109 Issue 3 Feb 2002 451-460

"... this suggests a potential of CB1 to modulate the function of the dopamine and serotonin system"

                               - Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Where is the Link? K Muller-vahl, Cannabinoids 2008;3(4):11-15

"Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotic constituent of cannabis."

Other Scientific Publications and Reviews

                               - The mechanism of retrograde signaling : The Brain's own Marijuana : Research into natural chemicals that mimic marijuana's effects in the brain could help explain, and suggest treatments, for pain, anxiety, eating disorders, phobias and other conditions, Roger A. Nicoll and Bradley N. Alger


                               - Endocannabinoid System and Synaptic Plasticity: Implications for the Emotional Responses.

"... endocannabinoid signaling could represent a potential therapeutical tool in the treatment of both anxiety and depressive symptoms"

                               - The Neuropharmacology of Impulsive Behaviour, Pattij et. al., Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Vol.29 N°.4 March 2008

"... suggest a specific role for endocannabinoid signaling, possibly owning to their modulatory action on glutamate and dopamine signaling in the prefrontal cortex and striatum"
"Thus, reducing impulsivity to treat psychiatric disorders will require fine-grained tailoring of pharmacotherapies, perhaps even on an individual basis."

                               - Never fear, cannabinoids are Here, NATURE, Vol 418, Aug 2002

"... But is seems possible that (cannabis) may instead be a form of self-medication for the sometimes extreme anxiety that (anxiety disorder people) experience"

                  - Role of Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Signaling, D. Piomelli and al., Physiol. Rev. vol 83 10171066

                  - Cannabinoid Receptors in Microglia of the Central Nervous System : immune Functional Relevance, Cabral and al, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol 78, Dec 2005

                  - Chronic Microglial Activation and Excitotoxicity Secondary to Excessive Immune Stimulation ; Possible Factors in Gulf War Synrdome and Autism, Blaylock, Journal of American Physicians ans Surgeons, vol 9 (2) summer 2004

                  - Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD) : Can this concept explain therapeutic benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions, E. Russo et. al., Neuroendocrinology Letters Nos.1/2, Feb-Apr Vol. 25,2004


tudies on Animal Models (mice/rats)

                - Reduced anxiety-like behaviour induced by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is mediated by CB1 receptors, Moreira and Al., Neuropharmacology 54 (2008) 141-150

                            - Modulation of anxiety through blockage of anandamide hydrolysis, D Piomelli and al., Mature Medecine, vol 9, N°1, Jan. 2003.

                            - The Endogenous Cannabinoid System controls extinction of aversive memories, G. Marsicano and al.,  NATURE, Vol 418, Aug 2002

                            - Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Exctinction via Habituation-Like Processes, Kamprath and al., The Journal of Neuroscience, June 21, 2006, 26(25):6677-6686

                            - Enhancing Cannabinoid Neurotransmission Augments the Extinction of Conditioned Fear, Chhatwal and al., Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) 30, 516-524

                            - Facilitation of Contextual Fear Memory Extinction and Anti-anxiogenic Effects of AM404 and Cannabidiol CBD in Conditionned Rats, Bitencourt and al., 1st Annual Satellite Symposium on the Cannabinoids.

                            - The Spontaneously Hypertensive-rat (SRH) as an Animal Model of ADHD : Evidence for Impulsive and non-impulsive Subpopulations, Adriani and al., Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, vol 27, Issue 7, Nov 2003, 639-651    rats model of adhd

                            - Cannabidiol CBD, extracted from Cannabis Sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice, Capasso and al., British Journal of Pharmacology, 2008 Jul, 154(5), 1001-8.

Endocannabinoid System Basics

                    - Endocannabinoid System Network ECSN (USA)



Cannabis Phyto-cannabinoids Chemistry

                               - A Tale of Two Cannabinoids: The Therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD), Russo E. et. al., Medical Hypotheses (2006) 66, 234-246

                               - Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than The Sum of Their Parts?, Russo E. et. al., Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics Vol.1 N° 3/4, 2001 103-132

                               - Extraction the Medicine, Arnaud Hazekamp Thesis, 187p (Netherlands)

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